Australian Citizenship

Australian Citizenship is a process in which a non-Australian citizen voluntarily becomes an Australian citizen. Australian citizens pledge their loyalty to Australia and its people and are then entitled to its protection and to exercise their rights and responsibilities as citizens.


The Australian Citizenship Act 2007 defines who is, who can become, and who ceases to be an Australian citizen.

Australian citizenship can be acquired automatically:

  • Birth
  • Adoption in Australia
  • Historical transitional arrangements
  • Abandonment as a child
  • Incorporation of a Territory

or by application:

  • Descent
  • Adoptions done in accordance with the Hague Convention on intercountry Adoption or bilateral arrangements
  • Conferral
  • Resumption

Most people who acquire Australian citizenship do so automatically however, most of those who do it by application do it under the conferral pathway. 

Key Eligibility requirements - Conferral pathway (general eligibility)

  • You must be 18 years or over at time of application.
  • You must be a Permanent Resident.
  • You must satisfy the Residence requirement. This is having been lawfully present in Australia for a period of four years immediately prior to making your application, including the last 12 months as a permanent resident.
  • You must pass the Citizenship test.
  • You must have basic knowledge of the English language (satisfied by the successful completion of the Citizenship test).
  • You must have adequate knowledge of Australia and of the responsibilities and privileges of Australian citizenship (satisfied by the successful completion of the Citizenship test).
  • You must meet character requirements.

Please note that the above is not an exhaustive list of requirements. If you would like comprehensive information about Australian citizenship, please contact us.